"In one experiment, they used six different advertising platforms in an effort to reach Australian men between the ages of 25 and 44. Their targeting performed slightly worse than random guessing. Such research indicates that, despite the extent of surveillance tech, a lot of the data that fuels ad targeting is garbage."
I suppose, at some level, ROI on digital advertising is based more on the product or service being advertised than it is to the cost of exchange.
It's so inexpensive to 'target' a product or service to a specifc audience that as long as one click brings a sale, we're returning a positive ROI.
What about all those other non-clicks that the targeted ad missed their intended audience? Does that impact the organization's brand ROI in the long term?
How do we truly target an audience with an ad?